Marketing concentrates on customers, wholesalers and retailers while public relations concentrates on internal and external stakeholders including employees, stockholders, public interest groups, the government and society as a whole.
A company cannot always control public relations. Sometimes there are unplanned contact points with stakeholders and non-stakeholders that influence the perception of the brand in the news or during interactions between employees. A public relations department should use these situations to create a positive image and perception for the organization.
Companies can engage in cause-related marketing and socially-responsible production of its goods and services to positively reflect its public relations activities. Damage control consists of responding effectively to “negative events caused by a company error, consumer grievances, or unjustified or exaggerated negative press (Clow, 2014).” Proactive approaches include entitling where a company attaches itself to the positive outcome of an event like a fundraiser for cancer awareness. Enhancements are proactive measures which use small benefits to siggest much more beneficial outcomes overall such as low-fat ice cream.
Kenneth E. Clow; Donald Baack, Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing Communications, 6th ed., Pearson, 2014