Here is a repost of classwork from the degree program for Business Marketing.
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In society, people belong to groups of all sorts and affiliate themselves with others in numerous ways; American, Male, Black, Adult, Progressive, Democrat, Hiphoppa, Teacher, Writer, Whovian etc. We even let the stereotypical characterizations of these groups become part of our own identity. We identify with many groups or just some specific groups which we feel define us best. Throughout society, these definitions allow or prevent us from walking through unfamiliar doors more easily. People think the best definitions of how they are perceived by themselves or others, are based on their outward characteristics like race or societal status. Some people even think that the ‘powers that be’ link them to these groups in order to keep them in certain categories. These groups, and the perceived conflicts between them, make it possible for certain doors to open or close only where appropriate. This simplification helps enable us to get through our day without having to process too much complex information so often. We use stereotypes to categorize situations, people, places and things almost like a reflex.
It’s one thing for people to define themselves or voluntarily become part of a stereotyped group, but often-times we are forced into groups by birth. Chief among all these group affiliations seems to be race. It is a category which we are born into and depending on where you live in the World, may be very significant in the society in which you reside. It even seems that the so-called ‘powers that be’ use this category above most others to maintain power. However, after studying business marketing, it seems that the most important categories are ones that most people have never heard of. These classifications are the main ones of concern to those who make money or want to maintain political power. All of the other groups are secondary to these affiliations. The secondary groups like race, nationality, ethnicity etc. are maintained by the power brokers of business, but only in reference to the primary categories which are defined beyond all cultural affiliations. This classification is known as the 4C’s or Cross Cultural Consumer Characterization, developed by one of the largest advertising firms in the World, Young and Rubicam founded in 1923. The firm, now known as Y&R, made some of the first color television commercials in the 1960’s and today boasts revenue of $907 million per year.
The 4C’s model is based on seven stereotyped classifications of psychological behavior which Y&R felt people fall into regardless of race, gender, nationality or group affiliation. This model is what business is built on today. For as long as there has been a class known as mainstream, this model has been in effect. For generations, business has sought to place people in the category of mainstream, because it is their biggest and most lucrative market. The other categories exist as markets while also helping to define the mainstream market and keep it distinct from the others. In business, the core motivations and buying habits of the members of each classification are manipulated by secondary categories to push them towards a purchase of whatever product or service the business is selling. For instance, the Mainstreamer’s core motivation for security can be manipulated by their fear of other races, ethnicities, cultures etc. to make them purchase a burglar alarm system or a gun.
In recent decades, the Succeeder has been indulged by big business to emphasize the high-priced lifestyle of first, Young Urban Professionals (Yuppies) in the 1980’s, then Black Urban Professionals (Buppies) in the 1990’s and the Wall Street/Real Estate Investors of the 2000’s. These Succeeders also include Sports and Entertainment Elite who promote the products of a high-priced lifestyle for the Aspirer class to emulate. For some, the path of life flows through stages from the Explorer to the Resigned. At each stage, there are different product options which fit the stage of life, psychological motivation and income level.
At any point however, due to economic situations, a person can become a Struggler, whose core motivation is escape which becomes a viable source of income for many businesses that depend on the revenue from this group (i.e. junk food, alcohol, and lottery). The contrast which is set-up between these groups defines each category and is sometimes helped by cultural characteristics like physical appearance even beyond race, such as manner of dress/fashion and hairstyles. Dressing like a Hipster can define one as being from the Aspirer class. Certain premium business attire can define one as a Succeeder. Other fashion choices make one fit into an Explorer, Mainstreamer or Resigned category. Probably the smallest class of individuals, includes the least materialistic and hardest to please niches called the Reformers, who are not so easily defined by fashion and appearance. Although they can support or develop new market areas in technology and information, their core motivation is enlightenment instead of control (Succeeder), status (Aspirer) or discovery (Explorer).
Reformers are the ones who brought us innovations such as the internet and social media, and before that, new forms of art and culture like Jazz and Hip Hop, which later became a business that the other six categories still utilize. Yet Reformers remain hidden in society. They may appear to be a Mainstreamer, Struggler, Succeeder etc., but instead be a Reformer who disavows the normal path of consumer development.
Culturally, the Reformer is who everyone follows. They lead to new paths and opportunities for both business and consumers. Most businesses don’t spring out of true necessity like food, shelter and clothing, but instead, luxury, preference and trendiness. Businesses follow trends. Reformers on the other hand, create trends by definition. This doesn’t mean that Succeeders, who want to increase their bottom line, can’t create new trends, because they do. Those trends, to Reformers, are considered manufactured or commercial trends forced on the masses through calculated marketing techniques. So many times, businesses capitalize on the trends and innovations left in the path of Reformers to set up lucrative business models that sell to Explorers, Aspirers, Mainstreamers, Suceeders, Strugglers and the Resigned.
Evaluating the learning process is a difficult task, especially when considering the complex objectives of skilled training for adults. So much of the success of the program depends on the learner and their circumstances in society after the program. Usually, learning theories are conceived in a controlled environment in the laboratory. In the real World, many more variables which can’t be controlled exist.
The evaluation of a program is broken down into four levels, according to Donald Kirkpatrick. Reaction evaluation is the first level. Here, data is gathered from the participants during the program about their feelings toward it. They can discuss what aspects of the program are negative or positive in discussion groups, interviews or questionnaires. This information would be valuable to an educator or facilitator attempting to evaluate a program.
The second level is learning evaluation, where the participant is pre and post-tested on their ability to grasp the new skills they learned. This information is useful for the learner when they can see the new skill they’ve acquired by the operation of equipment, for instance. Evaluation for this step may also include writing, speaking or other “information-recall tests or problem-solving exercises. (Knowles)”
The third step is also helpful to the facilitator of the program. This is behavioral evaluation, which tracks the behavior of the participant after the program is over. They study how the person’s skills, knowledge or behavior expresses growth from the learning process. Certain work performance evaluations will give an indication of how much a subject learning from training.
The last step is results evaluation, which is gathered from the records of an organization. These may include cost, efficiency, turnover or frequency of accident data. This information is useful to a funding agency responsible for subsidizing the program. This will give them an idea of how successful the program could be in the future and if the investment was useful.
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The purchase decision making process comes in four stages; needs recognition, internal/external search, purchase, post-purchase satisfaction. Different products have varying degrees of emphasis in each stage, which require different levels of financial commitment. Some products are purchased out of habit and have very little consideration of their attributes when purchasing them, like toothpaste. Branding works on products like this by promotion that keeps the name of brand as part of the consumer “evoked set.” These are the brand names that will come to mind when a consumer decides to fill the need for the type of product. Much of peoples purchases are repeated over and over so advertisers try to maintain brand loyalty to the 60% of their purchases which are habitual.
(definition) evoked set – is a list of brands that come to mind when a need arises. A person may not have ever previously required the use of a certain product, but because of continuous marketing, they might already be familiar with a range of different brands that may satisfy the need.
Other purchases are infrequent, like the purchase of a house or a car. These will take more consideration and research before any commitment to the purchase is made. Normally in the first stage of decision making, a need is identified. Virtually all sales are made to satisfy some need the consumer feels, whether actual or perceived. Some products are chosen for their functional benefits such as reliability, durability, convenience and performance. Other times products are purchased to satisfy emotional or intangible needs like prestige, pleasure, pride or conformity. Products and brand names in particular can instill a sense of emotional satisfaction that makes the product worth the sale.
A person’s socio-economic status may have a lot to do with the choices they make for products, but may not always dictate the type of purchase a person will make. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs says that people will tend to satisfy basic physiological needs before they try to satisfy emotional needs like prestige. However, in the consumer culture we live in, brand recognition is a source of status to those rich and poor. A need arises when one’s actual state of affairs differs from their desired state of affairs. People sometimes seek brands to alter their perceived feelings about their actual state of affairs. Dissatisfaction with their actual state of affairs may cause them to seek satisfaction elsewhere, like in the consumption of products. The purchase of a car to many is a status symbol to be used as a source of pride and self-esteem. When someone is purchasing a used car, they may still look to fulfill this status requirement or look to fulfill the functional need of getting back and forth to work.
At the point of need recognition, a person will draw on their personal knowledge about the products to start analyzing a way to solve their problem. The internal search is the beginning of step two in the purchase process. A consumer will use the evoked set of products they have already heard of, to try and make a match with their current need. They will rely on their attitudes about products they like, as well as ones they wish to avoid. From there, they might do more external searching to find out more of what’s available. They can use consumer reports, advice from friends, and information from retailers to generate a set of evaluative criteria. The list might include the price, service history, available warranties, color, class rating or similar features to judge one product from the other.
The next step is to make the purchase. The retailer can make this step easier by offering alternate methods of payment or extended payment options and rebates. After the purchase is made, a feeling of satisfaction or it’s opposite, cognitive dissonance, will arise in the mind of the consumer. The advertiser can help the feelings of satisfaction by being involved in the post-purchase process with their consumers. The advertiser can send thank you messages, welcome letters and promotional offers which are only available to customers. Since most purchases of small items are repeated, it is in the interest of the retailer to concentrate on the post-purchase process.
When buying food, which is a habitual purchase, the advertisement of certain brands can be informative and still have no effect. In a store I frequent, Aldi’s supermarket, there are no commercials or advertisements for their products. The company is based overseas and consequently doesn’t promote in my area at all. However because of prices and familiar packaging that is always similar to the widely-promoted American brands, Aldi’s does a good job capitalizing on the promotion of others. Long ago, off-brands learned the technique of creating a similar product with similar packaging which they didn’t have to promote
(Kerin, Hartley, Rudelius, Marketing the Core, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2013)
Public Service Announcements used to be a staple on commercial airwaves. The quality of messages put out by service organizations like the Ad Council have helped people become aware of important issues affecting their lives. The Ad Council’s mission is to, “Identify a select number of significant public issues and stimulate action on those issues through communications programs that make a measurable difference in our society.” However, the first PSAs I noticed when I was a kid came from a New York City commercial advertising agency named McCaffery and McCall. McCall sensed the need for more entertaining education and hired Bob Dorough to write one of the first in a series of songs in 1973, that would become known as Schoolhouse Rock. It was 42 years ago this week on January 20, 1973 when ABC’s Michael Eisner aired “Zero my Hero” on his Saturday morning children’s line-up. The series spawned several classics and some of my favorite PSAs of all time.
There was a special combination of the time period of the Hippie generation and creative advertising people recognizing the impact of edutainment before the Hip Hop generation would coin the term some 20 years later in the 1990’s, that made Schoolhouse Rock possible. Even now the songs are still pleasant to listen to, show musicianship and a certain edginess and philosophical insight indicative of the Hippie age.
The 1960s version of “Crazy’ seems a bit benign compared to modern day “Crazy”.
A PSA informing viewers that even if you hate your spouse you can remain together as long as you have Continue reading Keep Marriage Strong through Religion PSA – 1960s
Vintage Anti-smoking Public Service Announcement from the Heart Disease Association.
Animated public service announcement reminding viewers of the dangers of discarded refrigerators.
When I was young, I remember seeing an episode of the Brady Bunch that introduced me to the concept of “caveat emptor”, which Mr. Brady explained as, “let the buyer beware.” This is the idea that it’s up to the buyer to be vigilant about what they purchase. This seems to be the model we work from here in America. It’s up to the consumer to not fall for deceptive marketing. The seller has freedom to market and can employ seductive techniques that persuade buyers to embrace their products creating a desire to buy them. Many of the deceptive practices commercial advertising uses are not overt, but instead subliminal. To me deceptive tactics include associative techniques that put beautiful models in beer commercials for example.
False claims are obviously wrong and deceptive by nature, but the associative techniques that create moods or feelings toward the brand are really the most powerful. The techniques themselves, although deceptive are not necessarily wrong though. So whereas a false claim is deceptive and always wrong, associative techniques are deceptive but not always “wrong’ to do.
Perfume commercials or alcohol commercials are some of the easiest ones to see this practice unfold. Perfume commercials use models and exotic locations to create scenes with a certain mood that have little to do with the way a perfume smells. They sell it based on associations a person makes in their mind to the images they were presented with. If they wanted to illicit smells thru the visuals, they would show pictures of flowers or mountain rivers, like air-freshener commercials do. Instead, they show you two individuals chasing each other through a mansion with their clothes askew. You might not know if they’re running toward each other or away from each other, whether they’re angry or in love. It’s just a mood which seeks to stimulate feelings in the consumer. This, is kind of deceptive because what does the image have to do with the product? What does the commercial imply about the use of the product? Nothing really. And they aren’t really making any claims that they can be held to. They just create a mood and hope the consumer associates strong positive feelings with their brand and subsequently buys it.
Because some advertising is deceptive by nature, some people feel that it’s immoral, and it can be at times. The act of persuasion is almost always an attempt to increase the benefits of the persuader in commercial advertising. Other times, the persuadee or person the ad is directed at, can be warned or cautioned away from something that will harm them which in turn, benefits them. Is it always immoral to persuade someone to purchase something? No, yet sometimes ads cross the line into subliminally shaming, threatening or coercing the consumer with their message. Here, the consumer must remember the line Mr. Brady told his son Greg on an episode of the 1970’s TV show the Brady Bunch “caveat emptor, let the buyer beware.” The episode was all about truth in advertising.
The full episode and synopsis of the show can be found on TV.com (TV.COM LINK) “Greg is all excited as he’s about to go in for his driver’s test. When he passes the test, he decides that he needs his own car so he buys a car for $100 from his friend Eddie who made the car into something it’s not. Finding that he has been stuck, Greg attempts to do the same thing Eddie did, when he tries to sell the car.”